May 18, 2024

Super Absorbent Polymers Market: A Comprehensive Study on Key Manufacturers and Market Dynamics

Super Absorbent Polymers:

Super absorbent polymers (SAPs), also known as absorbent polymers or hydrogel polymers, are synthetic polymers that can absorb and retain extremely large amounts of a liquid relative to their size. SAPs are crosslinked polymer materials capable of absorbing hundreds of times their own weight in water or aqueous fluids. They are primarily used in absorbent products like diapers and adult incontinence products to absorb large volumes of body fluids. SAPs play a vital role in many modern sanitary products and their performance characteristics continue to be improved through advancements in material science and polymer engineering.

History and Development

The development of SAPs can be traced back to the 1960s when Professor Reid studied the synthesis of crosslinked polyacrylates which exhibited excellent swelling properties in aqueous solutions. This caught the attention of commercial entities and in the late 1960s, the US company Dow Chemical started developing superabsorbent polymers for commercial applications. In 1978, they launched the first commercially successful SAP based diaper under the name Pampers. Since then, intensive research has improved the water absorption capabilities and gel strength of SAP particles many folds. Today’s leading SAPs can absorb over 200 times their own weight in water within few minutes.

Composition and Chemistry

Most commonly used Super absorbent polymers are based on crosslinked polyacrylate/polyacrylamide networks. The raw materials used are acrylic acid, acrylamide and sometimes other vinyl/acrylic co-monomers. These monomers are polymerized in an aqueous solution using a crosslinking agent and an initiator. Crosslinking prevents the polymer chains from dissolving when absorbing liquid. The crosslinked network structure results in a three-dimensional matrix that entraps liquid molecules within it. The polymer chains contain hydrophilic functional groups like carboxylate that are highly attractive to water and aqueous fluids. This leads to rapid swelling as water rushes inside the matrix to interact with these groups.

Properties and Performance

Some key properties of modern SAPs that have enabled their widespread usage:

– Absorption Capacity: Current grades can absorb 100-1000 times their own weight in body fluids within few minutes through capillary absorption.

– Gel Strength: The swollen gel formed after absorption has sufficient strength to prevent leaking or squeezing out even under pressure.

– Rate of Absorption: SAPs take in fluids rapidly within seconds to minutes to prevent leaks.

– Retention Under Load: They can retain absorbed fluids even under pressure inside disposable products.

– Minimal Rewet: The absorbed gel does not squeeze out or allow absorbed liquid to move back to the surface.

– Biocompatibility: SAPs used in baby/adult diapers are non-toxic and safe for skin contact.

– Particle Size and Shape: Uniform, spherical particles in the 300-850 microns range work best within product architectures.

– Shelf Life: Properly packed SAPs maintain absorption capacity for years of storage before usage.


Given their ability to absorb vast amounts of fluids in milliseconds, SAPs today find wide use in sanitary care, hygiene and agricultural applications:

Baby Diapers – SAPs form the core part of modern ultra-absorbent diapers that can contain multiple urine insults without leakage. Current premium diapers use 40-80g of SAP.

Adult Diapers – Their high fluid handling is critical to contain accidents and promote independent living of the elderly population.

Feminine Hygiene – Menstrual pads, pantyliners and other feminine care products use SAPs to rapidly draw away and lock fluids away from the skin.

Wound Care – Hydrogel dressings, bandages, continence pads all rely on SAPs to absorb wound exudate and keep the site clean and dry.

Agriculture – Recent applications include superabsorbent soil conditioning polymer gels that absorb and retain water for plant uptake.

New Areas of Research

While SAPs have found enormous commercial success, researchers continue exploring new frontiers:

– Salt Tolerant Hydrogels – Developing SAPs that can absorb saline fluids from wounds or oceans more efficiently.

– Conductive Hydrogels – Creating electrically conductive hydrogels for biomedical electrode or tissue engineering applications.

– Self-Healing Hydrogels – Engineering damage-responsive hydrogels that can autonomously repair cracks or cuts in their structure.

– Stimuli-Responsive Hydrogels – Designing ‘smart’ hydrogels whose swelling/shrinking responds to external triggers like temperature, pH or light for controlled drug delivery.

– Agricultural Superabsorbents – Developing next-gen soil conditioners with balanced absorption-release properties suitable for various crop types and soil conditions.


From humble beginnings as experimental polymers studied in research labs, super absorbent polymers have today revolutionized modern hygiene products through their ability to rapidly absorb huge amounts of fluids. Continued material science innovation promises to expand their applications further while meeting performance needs through new polymer architectures, compositions and manufacturing methods. SAPs exemplify how fundamental materials research can create commercially valuable technologies improving quality of life worldwide.

1. Source: Coherent Market Insights, Public sources, Desk research
2. We have leveraged AI tools to mine information and compile it