July 21, 2024

Bioreactors: Revolutionary Technology Boosts Microbial Growth A Game-Changer in Biotechnology

A bioreactor is a device or system that supports a biologically active environment. It is commonly used in various industrial and research applications involving biological processes such as fermentation, cell culture, or enzyme production. Biological reactor provide tightly controlled conditions required for protective growth of microorganisms or plant and animal cells while facilitating effective process monitoring and product extraction.

Types of Bioreactors

Stirred Tank Bioreactor

The stirred tank Bioreactorsis the simplest and most widely used type. It consists of an agitated vessel with sampling ports, sparging equipment for adding gases, control mechanisms, and probes for online monitoring. Agitation and aeration are used to maintain homogenous distribution of cells and nutrients throughout the culture medium. Stirred tank biological reactor are suitable for microbial, cell culture, and enzymatic fermentation processes.

Airlift Bioreactor

Airlift biological reactor use the lifting action of compressed air or gas instead of mechanical stirring. The design includes an inner column within an outer column. Gas is sparged into the base of the inner column, where it rises and circulates the liquid vertically. Airlift reactors are ideal for delicate cells since shear forces are lower without mechanical agitation.

hollow Fibre Bioreactor

Hollow fibre biological reactor consist of semi-permeable hollow fibres, arranged in bundles and enclosed in a vessel. Cells are cultured in the extracapillary space outside the fibres, while nutrients and waste products are exchanged through the fibre walls. They provide high surface area to volume ratio and are suited for high-density cell culture processes.

Components and Operation of Biological reactor

Maintaining sterility is critical for Bioreactors. All components that come in contact with cell culture medium must be thoroughly sterilized, usually through autoclaving. Air and gas lines are passed through sterilizing filters before introduction into the bioreactor.

Control Systems

Biological reactor are equipped with automated control systems to precisely regulate process parameters like pH, temperature, agitation rate, oxygen levels and other variables. Sensors provide feedback to control loops that activate pumps, heaters, stirrers and valves to maintain setpoint conditions.

Sampling Systems

Sampling ports allow aseptic removal of small volumes of culture for analysis without compromising sterility. Specialized sampling systems and protocols prevent contamination during sampling procedures. Analyses include cell density, nutrient and product concentration measurements.

Applications and Benefits of Biological reactor

Pharmaceutical Production

Many modern biotherapeutics like monoclonal antibodies, vaccines and recombinant proteins are produced commercially using controlled bioreactor systems. Scale-up from laboratory to industrial scales is more consistent compared to shake flasks.

Bioprocess Development

Biological reactor aid in optimizing processes and understanding cell behavior under defined conditions. Data from online monitoring allows characterization of kinetics and formulation of mathematical models. Scale-down biological reactor also aid modeling and technology transfer.

Tissue Engineering

Biological reactor are applied to grow 3D tissues by simulating natural physiological conditions through transport of gases, nutrients, and waste removal. Dynamic culture enhances cell proliferation and production of extracellular matrices.

Environmental Biotechnology

Biological reactor play a vital role in wastewater treatment by facilitating biological breakdown of organic contaminants into harmless byproducts. They are also used for production of industrial enzymes and biofuels through fermentation.

biological reactor have enabled rapid scale-up and commercialization of many biotechnology processes and products by providing precise control over critical culture parameters. Their widespread adoption underscores their importance in diverse industrial applications involving cellular growth and protein production. Continuous advancements expand biological reactor’ potential in pharmaceutical manufacturing, bioenergy, biomedical and environmental sectors.

1. Source: Coherent Market Insights, Public Source, Desk Research
2. We have leveraged AI tools to mine information and compile it.