February 23, 2024
Cone Crushers

Evolution and Applications of Cone Crushers From Early Innovations to Future Trends in Crushing Technology

Cone crushers are modern era crushing machines used extensively in mining and aggregates production industries. These cone crushers utilize the concept of compression to break down rocks, ores and other materials into smaller pieces. With advanced technologies and mechanics, cone crushers offer efficient size reduction in various sectors.

History and Development of Cone Crusher:

The concept of using a spinning cone to crush materials against another cone to break them down dates back to the late nineteenth century. Some of the earliest developments were the Blake and Vulcan crushers introduced in the 1870s.

However, the modern cone crusher design was developed and patented in the 1920s by the Syracuse Engineering Company in the USA. Their Spring Cone Crusher design introduced significant improvements in capacity, efficiency and durability. Many other manufacturers incorporated the spring release concept into their own designs over the following decades.

Through 1950s-1970s, further innovations improved capacity, stroke frequency, throw, components durability and overall efficiency. Hydraulic adjustments and automation enhanced productivity. The advent of hydraulic cone crushers in 1960s was another milestone in cone crushing technology.

Types of Cone Crushers:

There are four main types of cone crushers – symons, short head, short shaft and full head crushers. Their functional designs and applications are as follows:
– Symons Cone Crusher: Most widely used cone crusher for secondary and tertiary crushing in mining and aggregates production, with high throughput and consistent product quality.

– Short Head Cone Crusher: Used for fine crushing of aggregates below 63 mm, clay, phosphate, feldspar and ferrosilicons. Gives cubic end products.

– Short Shaft Cone Crusher: Suitable for fine crushing down to 4mm, suited for crushing hard and abrasive ores. Generates less fines and dust.

– Full Head Cone Crusher: Provides intensive crushing for highest reduction with long throw. Ideal for crushing hard and abrasive materials like gravel.

Working Principle of Cone Crusher:

Cone crushers employ the time-tested principle of placing a spinning cone inside a short crushing chamber to reduce materials through compression.
– Materials are fed into the top of the crushing chamber through an opening and squeezed between the mantle and concave liners as it spins around.

– Crushing occurs as the material impacts on the concave liners and the force of the hydraulic or spring system pushes the mantle against or close to the concave liners.

– As the rotation continues, the pieces are crushed further between the cone and concave until they emerge from the discharge opening at the bottom. The desired size particles exit and oversized pieces return back into the crushing chamber.

Applications of Cone Crushers:

Cone crushers excel at crushing hard and abrasive materials due to their compressive crushing action.

– Mining – Aggregates production including granite, basalt, limestone, iron ore, copper ore and gold ore crushing.

– Construction – Crushing recycled concrete, asphalt and demolition debris for bases, drainage and road construction.

– Ceramics Industry – Crushing clay and shale for pottery, tiles and sanitaryware.

– Metallurgy – Crushing ferrosilicon, ferrochrome, copper, lead and zinc ores.

– Chemicals – Crushing limestone for production of cement, lime, soda ash and other products.

– Power Generation – Crushing coal for steam generation in thermal power plants.

Advantages and Limitations of Cone Crushers:

– Excellent for hard, abrasive materials due to compressive crushing action
– Consistent product shape and gradation
– Hydraulic and automatic controls for adjustment and protection
– Higher capacity than jaw and roll crushers of similar size
– Fewer wear parts than impactor crushers

– Not suitable for extremely soft or mud-like materials
– Product gradation is not as wide as jaw crushers
– Initial cost is higher than jaw crushers
– Requires periodic maintenance and part replacement
– Can choke if fed with extremely bulky materials

Future Trends of Cone Crusher Technology:

Advances in materials, engineering and digitalization will drive Cone Crusher development going forward. Some potential trends include:

– Lighter, stronger wear components from new metals and alloys
– Higher speed and stroke frequency for extra capacity
– Integration of sensors and automation for predictive maintenance
– Remote monitoring and diagnostics via IoT and Industry 4.0
– Fully electric direct drives for cleaner, greener operations
– Artificial intelligence for autonomous control and optimization

1. Source: Coherent Market Insights, Public sources, Desk research
2. We have leveraged AI tools to mine information and compile it